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PROGRAMA INGLES AVANZADO (C1) JURITECNIA
1.1. La oración compleja. – 1.1.1. Concesión: • : Even if/ though/when she was in a difficult financial situation, she managed to send her four children to a private school. • : Try as he might/Much as he tried, he couldn’t pass the driving exam. • <-ever>: However hard she (might have) tried, she didn’t get the promotion. – 1.1.2. Causa: • : You should speak perfect French, as / since you lived in the country for so many years. • Participle clause: Being such a bore, he never gets invited. • : Given our situation, it is vital not to lose that new customer. – 1.1.3. Finalidad: • To-clause: I had some time to spare. / This exercise is for you to finish. • : They whispered in order for me not to eavesdrop. • : They whispered in order that I couldn’t eavesdrop. • : They whispered so as not to allow me to eavesdrop. – 1.1.4. Resultado: • : The bank cancelled the loan; therefore / consequently/ hence, the project could not go ahead. • Adv. + Adj. + to-clause: He’s too proud to admit his mistake / She was honest enough to give back the money. • : The situation was so critical as to make us accept the deal. • : The situation was so critical that we accepted the deal. • : She’s such a nosy parker that we had to hold the meeting in another building. • Inversión tras : So easy was the exam that everybody passed. – 1.1.5. Condición: • Condicionales mixtas: ◊ If [Type-2], [Type-1]: If he arrived late last night, he won’t be up early. ◊ If [Type-2], [Type-3]: If she were more sensible, she would have avoided the problem. ◊ If [Type-3], [Type-2]: If you had gone to the interview, you would have a job now. • Deseo y arrepentimiento (): I regret not going / not having gone to the party. / I wish you had come earlier. / If only you had come earlier. / I wish you would not smoke. • Inversión del orden S-V: Should you require any further assistance, please contact us. / Had I known that you were coming, I would have waited for you.
1.2. El Grupo Nominal. – 1.2.1. Uso avanzado de pronombres. • Personal: We/Us three… / It might be right to say…/She thought it extravagant… • Posesivo: That’s not hers to put away. • Interrogativo / Exclamativo: Whoever locked this door?.1.2.2. Modificación del sustantivo con: • Postmodificación por medio de participios ◊ activo: a character brimming with energy. ◊ pasivo: a milky coffee served in a mug. • Grupo adjectival: The fruit cheapest to buy. • Oraciones de relativo (that-clause): The news that he was alive. – 1.2.3. Cambio de posición: • Fronting: This I didn’t know. / Some words I cannot learn. / Such a good job I had never seen before. • Clefting: It was her rudeness that he couldn’t forgive. / What he couldn’t forgive was her rudeness.
1.3. El Grupo Adjetival. – 1.3.1. Modificación del adjetivo con: • Adverbios: far cheaper / easily the most advanced / seriously injured. • Preposiciones: good at maths. • Proposiciones: ◊ That-: It was suspicious that they didn’t mention the price. ◊ Wh-: It’s confusing how they organise their rates. ◊ -ing-: He’s afraid of not being on time. ◊ To-: She was fast to come up with an answer.
1.4. El Grupo Verbal. – 1.4.1. Verbos Modales (tratamiento completo y sistemático de todos sus significados 1.4.2. Proposiciones de participio. • Participio presente: Being an only child, she was likely to be spoilt. • Participio pasado: Encouraged by such good results, he kept on practising. • Participio perfecto: Not having passed the exam, he had to re-sit it. – 1.4.3. Estructuras pasivas y causativas. • Pasivas: ◊ Con infinitivo: The crisis can be said to have been caused by reckless lending. ◊ Con verbos que denotan estado: It is believed that Mr Long has gone through an ordeal / Mr Long is believed to have gone through an ordeal. ◊ Grupo preposicional para evitar pasivas con formas continuas: The picture is being displayed à The picture is on display
1.5. El Grupo Adverbial. • 1.5.1. Inversión V-S tras la posición inicial de: • adverbios de frecuencia: Seldom does she appear in public these days. • adverbios negativos: Not only did he lie but he was adamant that he was telling the truth. • : So stubborn was she that everybody decided not to talk to her / Such was her beauty that everybody turned to look at her.
1.6. El Grupo Preposicional. • 1.6.1. Posición en: • pseudo-clefting: What I’m sure of is his loyalty. • interrogativo: What else are you looking for? • voz pasiva: The tickets will be paid for. • proposiciones de infinitivo: The car was difficult to get into. • 1.6.2. Oraciones de Relativo: Uso de preposiciones § especificativas: That’s the woman who/that you were just talking about. / That’s the woman about whom you were just talking. § no especificativas: The staff, some of whom had been recently hired, were made redundant.
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